The article starts by emphasising that 90% of violence is committed by men, and being a male is the most important variable when explaining violence. Grönfors disagrees with the majority of violence literature which sees violence as abnormal behaviour. He sees it as rather normal behaviour. Boys are socialised to the male identity which includes competition, aggressive behaviour and no emotional bounds with other boys or men. There are forms of violence which are legitimate, such as wars, self-defence and sports. Violence is always a question of power, and as men commit much more violent acts than women, it is a question of men's power. Men can use violence to reinforce their dominant position or when their position is threatened. Violence is a major part of male culture. It is not always expressed as a physical act, but rather as embracing the values and attitudes which might produce violent outcomes. The article turns the question, of why some men are violent, upside-down: why do
some men refrain from violence?